Republic of South Sudan (RSS)
Since November 2009, ID has worked with the Republic of South Sudan (RSS), formerly known as the Government of Southern Sudan until July 2011, to support its effective engagement in the many diplomatic processes that affect it. In particular, ID has helped RSS to manage the diplomacy surrounding the implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). ID has successfully helped RSS to maintain the international consensus on the need to fully implement the CPA in all respects, including the need to maintain the timetable of the January 2011 self-determination referendum. ID is also helping RSS to make clear to the international community the many challenges it faces and the areas in which it needs continued international support after its independence on 9 July 2011. By helping RSS to increase the effectiveness of its international engagement, ID has helped promote more sustainable outcomes from the diplomacy on Sudan.
Photo Credit: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe
Africa's longest war ended in January 2005, with the signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan in Naivasha, Kenya. The Agreement provided for an expression of the right to self-determination for the people of the South through a referendum to be held in January 2011.
The January 2011 referendum resulted in
a clear vote by the people of Southern Sudan for separation. The RSS became an independent state on 9 July 2011 and was admitted as the 193rd
member state of the United Nations on 14 July 2011.
The RSS will continue to face several challenges. Several important parts of the 2005 CPA remain to be implemented, including an agreement on the final status of Abyei. Sudan and South Sudan also need to finalize agreements on issues such as oil, citizenship and the demarcation of parts of the common border.
The RSS will also face its own domestic challenges. The country has significant potential sources of wealth - including oil and agriculture - but is currently one of the poorest parts of Africa, with particular long-standing disadvantages in the areas of health, education and infrastructure. Establishing effective governance and providing security to all citizens will require the ongoing support of the international community. South Sudan will therefore need to strengthen and maintain effective relationships with regional partners, key donor countries and the United Nations.
Officials of the Republic of South Sudan
- Mr. Deng Alor, Minister for Regional Cooperation - Juba
- Mr. Pagan Amum, Minister of Peace and CPA Implementation - Juba
- Dr. Cirino Hiteng Ofuho, Minister in the Office of the President - Juba
- Hon. Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth, Head of Mission, South Sudan Mission - USA
- Government of South Sudan Website
- Government of South Sudan Mission to the U.S.
- Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)
- Memorandum of Understanding between the SPLM and the NCP on post-referendum issues
- President Salva Kiir's 2010 Inaugural Address
- Report of the UN Secretary-General on the Sudan
- UN Secretary-General Communique on Sudan High-Level Meeting - September 24 2010
- African Union High Level Implementation Panel on Sudan - 15 November 2010
- UN Record of 16 November 2010 UN Security Council Meeting
- UN Record of 16 December 2010 UN Security Council Meeting
- UN Secretary-General Report on Sudan - 31 December 2010
- Press Statement of the UN Security Council - 6 January 2011
- Official Referendum Results Site
- UN Security Council Presidential Statement on the Situation in Sudan [S/PRST/2011/3] - 9 February 2011
- UN Security Council Resolution 1996 - 8 July 2011
- "South Sudan Oil Deal Deadlock," BBC HARDtalk, 1 May 2012.
- "Terror in Sudan," Channel 4, 13 April 2012.
- "UN Welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member," BBC, 14 July 2011.
- "Security Council Recommends S.Sudan as UN Member," Reuters Africa, 13 July 2011.
- "Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between Republic of South Sudan and Saharawi Republic," Sahara Press Service, 10 July 2011.
- "South Sudan Could Join UN Shortly After Independence," VOA News, 6 July 2011.
- "Obama Expresses Concern Over Sudan Violence," The Washington Post, 16 June 2011.
- "World Bank Plans Trust Aid Fund for Southern Sudan," AFP, 14 June 2011.
- "Sudan Leaders to Meet on Border Conflict," AFP, 11 June 2011.
- "No Peace on Sudan Borders Without Joint Accord: SPLM," AFP, 7 June 2011.
- "Brinkmanship in Sudan as a Deadline Nears," The New York Times, 5 June 2011.
- "Ethiopia to Send Troops to Sudan's Abyei if Asked," Reuters Africa, 31 May 2011.
- "South Sudan President Kiir Calls for International Forces in Abyei Region," Bloomberg, 26 May 2011.
- "South Sudan: EU Commission Welcomes Council's Decision to Provide €200 Million to Support a Sustainable and Peaceful Creation of the New State," Europa, 23 May 2011.
- "US: Hard to Drop Sudan From Terror List Given Abyei," Reuters Africa, 23 May 2011.
- "Sudan Government Cancels UN Meetings, Captures Disputed Abyei Town," VOA News, 22 May 2011.
- "South Sudan Seeks AfDB Membership," African Development Bank Group, 20 May 2011.
- "South Sudan Makes Progress with Business Laws: World Bank," Reuters Africa, 17 May 2011.
- "Britain to Open New Overseas Embassies," AFP, 11 May 2011.
- "Sudan at a Crossroads," The Guardian, 7 May 2011.
- "Sudan: UN EnvoyPresses Both Sides in Abyei Dispute to Implement Accords," UN News Centre, 5 May 2011.
- "Clashes in Sudan Kill 20 Near Border, Oil Regions," Associated Press, 4 May 2011.
- "China Expresses Willingness to Boost Cooperation with Southern Sudan, Promises Further Aid," Xinhua, 29 April 2011.
- "India Engages Both Sudans," The Times of India, 27 April 2011.
- "Southern Sudan Ready to Negotiate with Militias to End Violence," VOA News, 24 April 2011.
- "Sudan: UN Official Warns of Threats Ahead of Formal Separation of South," UN News Centre, 20 April 2011.
- "S. Sudan Soon Joins EAC Fold," The Citizen, 7 April 2011.
- "S. Sudan renews amnesty offer to warring militia," Reuters, 5 April 2011.
- "Egypt says will recognise new South Sudan state," Reuters, 28 March 2011.
- "INTERVIEW-Sudan's Abyei must be resolved before secession-Norway," Reuters, 23 March 2011.
- "Southern Sudan seeking UN peacekeeping force along border, accuses north of 'destablization'," AP, 22 March 2011.
- "North and south Sudan talks to resume: Mbeki," AFP, 17 March 2011.
- "Sudan urges US to accelerate debt relief," AFP, 15 March 2011.
- "UN, Sudanese parties discuss security situation in Abyei," UN News, 4 March 2011.
- "UN reinforces peacekeepers after clashes in disputed Abyei region," UN News, 3 March 2011.
- "Sudan's parliament ends southern membership early," Reuters, 22 February 2011.
- "S. Sudan eyes new oil export links, may anger north," Reuters, 16 February 2011.
- "India welcomes successful referendum in Southern Sudan," Indian Ministry of External Affairs, 14 February 2011.
- "South Sudan Backs Independence - Results," BBC, 7 February 2011.
- "Results of South Sudan Referendum Set for Early February," 26 January 2011.
- "Almost 99 Percent Choose South SudanSplit," Reuters, 21 January 2011.
- "Sudan: UN Hails South's Vote for Independence but Cautions on Tasks Ahead," UN News Service, 7 January 2011.
- "South Sudan separatists claim landslide," Financial Times, 23 January 2011.
- "Sudan Turnout To Pass 60 Percent Threshold: Commission," Reuters, 12 January 2011.
- "In Sudan, An Election and A Beginning," New York Times, 8 January 2011.
- "Sudan Vote Tests Obama's Africa Diplomacy," Reuters, 5 January 2011.
- "Sudan Court Rejects One Vote Challenge, Mulls Two," Reuters, 20 December 2010.
- "Almost Three Million Sign Up for South Sudan Vote," Agence France-Presse, 8 December 2010.
- "North, South Sudan Agree to Protect Oilfields During Referendum," Bloomberg Businessweek, 7 December 2010.
- "Sudan Vote Chief to Request Three-Week Delay," Reuters, 2 December 2010.
- "In Expectant Mood, Sudanese Register to Vote on Secession for the South," New York Times, 15 November 2010.
- "Mbeki 'Optimistic' Over Sudan Flashpoint District Deal," Agence France-Presse, 22 October 2010.
- "UN Security Council to Make Sudan Trip Next Week," CNN, 29 September 2010.
- "Remarks By the President in a Ministerial Meeting on Sudan," White House, 24 September 2010.
- "US Steps Up Efforts On Sudan Vote," New York Times, 12 September 2010.
- "Obama Administration Intensifies Efforts in Sudan," Washington Post, 30 August 2010
- "Bordering on Chaos," Foreign Policy, 30 August 2010
- "Obama's Failure in Sudan," New York Times Op-Ed, 29 August 2010
- "Southen Sudan Outlines Aid Needs Ahead of Referendum," Washington Post, 19 August 2010
- "International Criminal Court Charges Sudan's Omar Hassan al-Bashir With Genocide," Washington Post, 13 July 2010
- "Sudan's Future Is Now, U.S. Envoy Says," New York Times, 27 April 2010